1) Which of the following is not one of the ideas contributed to the criminological
literature by labeling theory?
A) Deviant individuals achieve their status by virtue of social definition.
B) Deviance is the consequence of a quality inherent in human activity .
C) Labeling by society tends to perpetuate crime.
D) Negative self-images follow from processing by the formal criminal justice
2) The dramaturgical perspective was developed by
A) Ronald Akers.
B) Edwin Lemert.
C) Erving Goffman.
D) Howard Becker.
3) Elder’s principle of __________ refers to the fact that the developmental im-
pact of a succession of life transitions is contingent on when in a person’s life
A) historical time and place
B) linked lives
C) timing in lives
D) human agency
4) According to Moffit, a __________ results when adolescents begin to desire
autonomy but are prevented from achieving it because of preexisting social
A) moral enterprise
B) social bond
C) maturity gap
D) control ratio
5) Lawrence E. Cohen and Richard Machelek pioneered the __________ theory.
A) delinquent development
B) evolutionary ecology
D) dual taxonomic
6) Terence Thornberry developed __________ theory.
A) delinquent development
C) dual taxonomic
7) Which of the following is not one of the preliminary results of the Causes and
Correlates of Delinquency Program?
A) Serious involvement in drugs is related to serious involvement in delinquency.
B) A lack of commitment to school is associated with higher involvement in delin-
C) Delinquency is related to individual risk factors such as impulsivity.
D) Being on welfare is associated with a fairly low risk of delinquency.
8) According to the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program research, very
young subjects (as young as three years of age) are most likely to be found on
the __________ pathway to delinquency.
B) multiple disruption
D) authority conflict
9) PHDCN is using a(n) __________ research design to study the development of
B) participant observation
10) The __________ perspective holds that conflict is a fundamental aspect of
social life that can never be fully resolved.
11) In 1905, __________ described the struggle between the haves and the have-
nots as a natural consequence of a capitalist society.
A) Willem Bonger
B) William Chambliss
C) George Vold
D) Richard Quinney
12) The 1958 book Theoretical Criminology was written by
A) George Vold.
B) Richard Quinney.
C) Austin Turk.
D) Karl Marx.
13) According to Chambliss and Seidman, the __________ a group’s political or
economic position, the __________ the probability that it’s views will be re-
flected in laws.
A) lower; greater
B) higher; less
C) higher; greater
D) lower; less
14) __________ feminism sees men as controlling women through sexuality and
sees society as patriarchal.
A) Alternative (women of color)
15) __________ criminology suggests that social control agencies and citizens
should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and
thus reduce crime.
16) According to Fox and Levin, the __________ serial killer commits murder to
mask other crimes, such as robbery.
17) Which of the following is not a rape myth?
A) Women say no when they really mean yes
B) Women bring false rape charges to get even with men
C) Women are asking for it by wearing provocative clothing
D) They are all current rape myths.
18) According to Baron and Straus, which of the following is not directly linked to
increased rates of rape?
A) Higher rates of pornography
B) High levels of gender inequality
C) High rates of legitimate violence
D) High rates of violent crime
19) According to Dennis Stevens, __________ rapists select victims based on the
most available target.
20) Which of the following is not one of the three strategies drug robbers use to
minimize the risk of retaliation inherent in targeting drug dealers?
C) Selective disinhibition
D) Anonymity maintenance
21) The term “cafeteria-style offending” was first used by
A) Mark S. Fleisher.
B) Edwin H. Sutherland.
C) Neil Shover.
D) Malcolm Klein.
22)__________ is defined as “the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away
of property from the possession of another.”
D) Larceny theft
23) At the time their cars were stolen, what activity are victims most likely to be
A) Eating dinner
B) Working a their jobs
D) Attending a party
24) When considering theft from motor vehicles, the most frequently stolen items
B) external vehicle parts.
C) stereo equipment.
D) cellular phones.
25) The infirm category of McShane and Noonan’s typology of shoplifters was most
likely to contain which of the following persons?
A) A young male
B) An elderly female
C) A middle-aged female
D) A middle-aged male
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